What is a pomeranian?

Pomeranian is a compact, short-back, active pet dog, scientific name Haduo Li Department Pomeranian (commonly known as the British Department of Pomeranian ), it is a German Spitz one, originating in Germany. It has a soft, thick undercoat and coarse fur. The base of the tail is very high, and the tail with thick fur is curled on the back. 

It has a vigilant character, a clever expression, a brisk manner, and a curious nature. Small and cute, suitable for companion dogs, mostly white and brown. German Fox Terriers, including the Dutch Keeshond, Large Fox Terrier, Medium Fox Terrier, Small Fox Terrier, and Squirrel Terrier (also known as Pomeranian), are also very competitive competition dogs. 

What is a pomeranian?

Its white coat, partial yellow butter, color, black, red, brown, and the like. [1] Chinese nameHadoli PomeranianForeign namePomeranianAliasPomeranian, SquirrelLatin name Canis lupus familiarise two namesPomeranian, Squirrelboundaryanimal worldDoorChordataYamenVertebrate subphylumClassMammalSubclassTrue beastsItemCarnivoraSubheadSchizopodiadivisionCanineSubfamilyCanineBelong toCanisSubgenusdogkindGray wolfsubspeciesDomestic dog distribution are Germany, Japan, United StatesTypes of small dog shoulder height22-28cmweightBelow 3.5kgFunctionToy dogs and companion dogs place of originPomerania, Germanysort by colorWhite, black, coffee, orange, redcharacterMeek , positive, and friendly.

What is a pomeranian?

Pomeranian content

  • 1.Development History
  • 2.Morphological characteristics
  • 3.Feeding method
  • 4.Grooming dog hair
  • 5.Pros and cons
  • 6.Breeding and breeding
  • 7.Selection
  • 8.Estrus and estrus
  • 9.Pregnant dog feeding and management
  • 10.Prevention and treatment of common diseases
  • 11.Self-protection

Development History

Pomeranian (5 photos)German Fox Terriers, including Keeshond and Pomeranian. The German Foxhound is the descendant of the Stone Age “peat dog” and later the Foxhound of the lake dweller: the German Foxhound is the largest dog breed in Central Europe. This kind of dog later produced countless breeds. In non-German-speaking countries, the wolf fox is called a keeshond, and the toy fox is called a Pomeranian. [1] .

Morphological characteristics

Pomeranian (10 photos)The head portion is quite short, head cover wide and flat, shaped like a fox head. The eyes are medium in size, bronze in color, and slightly oval in shape, with moderately spaced black eye sockets. The nose is thin and wedge-shaped, and the nose and coat are the same color. The ears are small, the two ears are close together, and they are mostly upright, just like the ears of a fox. The chest is thick and the body is compact. The front legs are straight and parallel to each other. The thigh muscles are moderately developed. The wrists are straight and strong, and the feet are arched, compact, and do not turn inward or outward. The feathery tail is unique to the Pomeranian. The tail is thick and long, tilted up to the back [2].


Feeding method

The Pomeranian’s hair is double-layered, which is divided into undercoat and bristles. Normal care is also very important. First of all, combing, tools are very important for combing, and the method is also important. First, use a needle comb to comb layer by layer from the foot. When you encounter a knotted place, don’t use too much force and comb it out at once. It hurts the hair. Then comb in the direction of the hair. Second, use a comb with a handle, and comb vigorously in the opposite direction to make it fluffy. Third, you can use scissors to remove the hair on the soles of your feet at home. This will prevent slippage. In addition, your nails should be cut off so that your feet will not be injured and your gait will not be affected. Although Pomeranians are small dogs and have no body odor, they are naughty and cute. They are often covered in dust and dirt, so they need to be cleaned. The breeding conditions are good, the floor is clean, and the bathing interval can be longer. Generally, it is washed once every 2 months. The bitch needs to be washed once before giving birth. After delivery, the tail and buttocks will be soiled. Clean the dirty parts to avoid babies. Canine virus infection [1].

Grooming dog hair

Pomeranian (41 photos)The hair should be combed once in the morning and evening for 5 minutes each time. Pay attention to the sequence of combing: starting from the neck, from front to back, and from top to bottom in sequence, that is, from the neck to the shoulders, then back, chest, waist, abdomen, hindquarters, and then comb the head, and finally, It is the limbs and tail. During the combing process, you should comb one side and then comb the other side. Combing method: combing hair should be combed and pulled quickly in the direction of the hair. When grooming long-haired dogs, many people only comb the long hair on the surface and neglect the combing of the fine hair below. 

The undercoat of a dog is soft and dense. If it is not combed for a long time, it will form tangles and even cause eczema, ringworm or other skin diseases. Therefore, when combing a long-haired dog, you should comb layer by layer, turn the long hair up, and then comb the undercoat. Types of combs: brushes, elastic wire brushes, and long and sparse metal combs. The brush can only make the ends of the long hair fluffy, but the fine hair cannot be combed. When grooming long-haired dogs, brushes, elastic wire brushes, and long and sparse metal combs should be used together [3].

Pros and cons

Pomeranian puppies (2 photos)The Pomeranian must be groomed regularly and is not suitable for people with busy lives [4].

Breeding and breeding


Arena display (19 photos)The use of elite breed dogs for mating and breeding will consolidate and develop the excellent qualities of dogs in their offspring, and make people’s undesirable shortcomings gradually disappear in their offspring. This is the purpose of selection. When male dogs and female dogs of the same breed with the same excellent traits mate and breed, not only can they ensure that the breeds of their offspring are pure, but they can also consolidate and develop the excellent qualities of their parents in their offspring. This kind of mating and breeding is called purebred Reproduction. Use a male dog of a good breed to mate with a female dog of another breed. Because they have different good traits, they can get offspring with different good qualities from their parents. This kind of breeding is called interbreeding. 

The use of two different species of males and females to mate bred new breeds or offspring with new traits, this kind of breeding is called mixed hybridization, such as the use of male wolves and excellent female dogs. You can breed new breeds of dogs that are fierce to the enemy and gentle to the owner. The best age for breeding dogs to mate for the first time animals have sexual maturation of a specific time, specific sexual maturity is not the best time to procreate age, dogs as well. Take medium-sized dogs as an example.

They begin to mature sexually at the age of 7-8 months after birth. Although both male and female dogs have the ability to give birth to offspring, their physical development is not sound. At this time, the reproductive offspring are also won’t be too good. For black backs, wolf blues, gorillas, Kunming dogs, etc., the best dog age for their offspring for the first time: bitches should start at 18 or 20 months after birth when their bodies are fully developed, Also has the ability to breed suckling dogs, so female dogs should be bred in the third estrus; male dogs develop and stereotype later than female dogs, therefore, the best dog age for the first breeding should start at the age of two. The breeding age of male dogs can be extended from two years old to seven or eight years old. In order to obtain good offspring of elite breed dogs, the nutrition of male dogs and female dogs must be strengthened before breeding. Pay attention to proper training and exercise for them. Keep their bodies healthy and keep them motivated to work.

What is a pomeranian?

Estrus and estrus

Sexually mature dogs are in heat twice a year. The estrus period in spring is from March to May, and the estrus period in autumn is from September to November. The interval between two estruses is about 6 months. In the case of female dogs, estrus in female dogs is marked by vaginal bleeding in female dogs: vaginal bleeding generally lasts for about 21 days, but vaginal bleeding in estrus in older female dogs may be a little shorter for one or two days: The main characteristics of female dogs during estrus:

1. The labia of the estrus bitch is swollen, hypertrophied, protruding, and initially pink, with obvious congestion and a small amount of mucus with blood flowing out of the bitch’s vagina. As the estrus period continues, the amount of blood flowing out increases day by day, and the color of the blood also changes from pink to deep red: on the 8th day of estrus, the blood volume is the thickest, and the darkest. After the 9th day, the blood volume gradually decreased and the concentration gradually became thinner. At this time, the labia gradually turned dark red. As the swelling of the labia gradually disappeared and wrinkles began to appear, the female dog in estrus entered the ovulation period. The ovulation period lasts about 5-6 days when the female dog in estrus is willing to accept the male dog to climb across. With the extension of the ovulation period, the courtship of the female dog in estrus became more intense. Until the 16th day of the estrus period, the female dog began to hate the entanglement of the male dog. At this time, the vagina of the female dog in the estrus still had blood flowing out. By the 21st day, the vagina bleeding stopped, the labia swelling subsided, and the female dog’s estrus ended.

2. The bitch looks excited during estrus. As the estrus period continued, the bitch’s excitement increased, her expression was more drowsy than usual, her bark was louder, and her eyes brightened. In hot estrus, the bitch sits restlessly, the appetite drops sharply, and the tied bitch keeps barking in the air. If the dog breeder presses the bitch’s waist or strokes the tail, the bitch stands still. , Or tilt the tail of the dog to one side, the dog’s labia is constantly twitching, and the vagina frequently opens and closes. At this time, as with a sexually mature male dog, the hind limbs of the female dog in estrus are spread apart and the dog is actively accepting mating. During the estrus period of the dog, the dog breeder must closely observe the above-mentioned changes and expressions of the estrus bitch, and must remember the date when the bitch begins to estrus (the first day of vaginal bleeding) in order to calculate the best of the bitch The mating day: Only bred on the best mating day can the female dog’s conception rate and litter size be improved.

Best mating day and matingPomeranian (3 photos)According to observational research and dog-raising practice, it is proved that the estrus period of a normally developed bitch is 21 days, and the 10th to 13th day of estrus is the best mating day. Breeding bitches are most likely to become pregnant. Therefore, the first mating is generally carried out on the 10th day of the female dog’s estrus, and then one mating every day for 4 consecutive matings. The last mating is the 13th day of the female’s estrus; or the first mating on the 10th day of the female’s estrus. Mate once every other day, and mate twice on the best mating day. Regarding the changes in the external genitals of the female dog in estrus, the swollen labia of the female dog in estrus had obviously subsided on the 10th day of the best mating day, the color was dark red, and wrinkles appeared around the labia. The dog breeder used his fingers to stimulate estrus. In the labia of a bitch, the labia nerve of the dog is very sensitive, and there will be rhythmic contractions. The bitch will instinctively open the hind limbs and appear to accept mating. Regarding the physiological condition of the female dog in heat at this time, when the female dog receives the male dog to mate and the uterus is stimulated by the sperm, ovulation begins 12 to 14 hours, and the ovulation lasts for 12 to 48 hours. The sperm injected into the female dog’s body by the male dog survives for about 48 hours in the female dog’s womb. Continuous mating or mating at Et intervals during the ovulation period from the 10th to 13th day of the female dog’s estrus will achieve the best conception effect.

What is a pomeranian?

Pregnant dog feeding and management

The pregnancy period of female dogs is 58 to 65 days, with an average of 62 days. Among them, the gestation period of large dogs and medium-sized dogs is about 63 days, and the gestation period of small dogs such as pugs is about 60 days. In order to ensure that the offspring breeds are pure, in the first few days after mating, the bitch is not allowed to approach the male dogs of other breeds, so as to avoid impure offspring. The bitch should be carefully fed during pregnancy, and the feed should be rich in nutrition and sufficient in quantity, allowing it to feed freely. You must also feed some cartilage, fresh green vegetables, cod liver oil, etc. Pregnant dogs must have appropriate activities. Female dogs in the first month of pregnancy can carry out professional training activities every day; from the second month of pregnancy, pregnant dogs should stop training, and are not allowed to jump or participate in professional activities, but every day the owner must take it for a two-hour walk. Improper activity is very harmful to pregnant dogs [5].

Prevention and treatment of common diseases

The most serious and common canine diseases are now introduced as follows

  1. Rabies : It is an acute infectious disease caused by a filtering virus. The patient is zoonotic and has a very serious hazard. The mortality rate is almost 100%. There is no cure for it so far. Rabies vaccination is the only effective preventive measure. There are two kinds of vaccines to prevent rabies produced in my country: freeze-dried vaccines of rabies attenuated cells and rabies vaccines. Freeze-dried vaccine of rabies attenuated cells is diluted with sterilized water, and 1 ml is injected subcutaneously regardless of the size of the dog. The immunization period is 1 year. For the rabies vaccine, dogs weighing less than 4 kg, receive 3 ml each time; dogs weighing more than 4 kg, receive 5 ml each time, and the immunization period is half a year. In addition, injection of five-linked vaccine or six-linked vaccine is a good way to prevent rabies and other diseases: Although there are no obvious adverse reactions after the above-mentioned vaccination, it should be injected according to the instructions.
  2. Ascariasis : It is a widely spread intestinal parasitic disease, which seriously affects the normal development of puppies and young dogs.
  3. Pseudorabies : This disease is an infectious disease caused by a variety of domestic and wild animals. The incidence of pigs is high, and dogs are also infected. Dogs are infected by eating beef, pork, rat meat, etc. that are suffering from pseudorabies, or by infection of the dog’s wounds. Sick dogs have a high mortality rate, but they do not excrete the virus. Staring at the beginning of the illness, depressed, scratching the injured area. The area around the wound was red and swollen, the sick dog groaned, refused to feed, vomited, bited a foreign body, pharyngeal paralysis, drooling, and died with symptoms similar to rabies. The disease is mainly prevention: dogs are strictly prohibited from entering the pig house, and it is a good strategy to inject pseudorabies attenuated vaccine for puppies over 4 months old.
  4. Canine parvovirus disease : This disease is a canine infectious disease that has been found to be infected by the feces, urine and saliva of sick animals in recent years. Mainly harm puppies. Enteritis-type patients are in low spirits, their body temperature rises, refusal to eat, vomiting, diarrhea, loose stools, watery stools, and tomato-like smelly stools. They soon die from dehydration. Dogs with myocardial type have mild diarrhea and often die suddenly. Because of breathing difficulties. The disease is easily misdiagnosed as enteritis, dysentery, pneumonia, etc. The mortality rate of sick dogs is 10%-50%. The sick dogs are treated symptomatically by veterinarians. Injection of antitoxin No. 1 has a good effect on this disease. Injecting canine parvovirus vaccine or five vaccines before the onset is the best way to prevent this disease.
  5. Canine distemper : This disease is an acute infectious disease caused by a virus, which mainly harms puppies between 3-12 months of age. Sick dogs with loss of appetite, vomiting, fatigue, chills, cough, high fever, foul-smelling or bloody stool; bronchitis or pneumonia caused by photophobia, watery, runny nose or pus-like nasal fluid; body spasm-like movements, screaming and running, Foaming at the mouth or falling to the ground convulsions, the course of the disease is long or short, and the sequelae of hindquarters are often weak after healing, and some die a few months later. This disease mostly occurs in the cold October-April, with a high fatality rate. The treatment of this disease can be analgin injection, intramuscular injection of penicillin or oral sulfa drugs. Vaccination of five-unit vaccines for weaned puppies is the best way to prevent this disease.
  6. Canine infectious hepatitis : This disease is an acute septic infectious disease caused by canine hepatitis virus, which mainly affects puppies under 1 year old. At the beginning of the disease, body temperature rose to 41℃, fatigue, thirst, diarrhea, blood in the stool, photophobia, arched back, etc. Puppies have a high mortality rate; adult dogs can survive the dangerous period and recover. The disease is treated with fluid infusion and vitamin B and vitamin C supplementation, antibiotics are injected to prevent infection, and the liver is protected by oral administration of Liver Taile.
  7. Canine tuberculosis : human tuberculosis, bovine tuberculosis, and poultry tuberculosis. Canine tuberculosis is caused by human or bovine tuberculosis bacteria. Puppies are prone to disease and are also a threat to people. Dogs suffering from open tuberculosis should be culled and buried deeply to avoid spreading infection.
  8. Meningitis: This disease is caused by infection with meningitis pathogenic bacteria. Sick dogs have paroxysmal muscle stiffness or twitching, and the horns are reflexed. Sick dogs have no therapeutic value and should be culled and buried deeply.
  9. Canine encephalitis : This disease is caused by the destruction of nerve cells, canine distemper virus, or the invasion of protozoa in the brain, or other viral infections. The main symptoms are high fever, vomiting, lethargy, stiff neck, convulsions and convulsions, unconsciousness, and death from respiratory failure. Symptomatic treatment can be given in the early stage of onset; severe cases should be culled and buried deeply.
  10. Pneumonia : The sick dog is lack of energy, poor appetite, lying on the ground, drinking water, body temperature 39.5-40℃. There are obvious signs of pneumonia. This disease can be injected with Antongding to lower the body temperature, and intramuscular injection of penicillin or erythromycin in the eyes is also very effective.
  11. Canine mycotic pneumonia: This disease is a fungal infection and also infects humans. Symptoms of fungal pneumonia: cough, difficulty breathing, ascites, diarrhea, severe dehydration, etc.
  12. Dog cold : This disease is caused by rain, cold, over-fatigue and malnutrition. Sick dogs are anorexia, high fever, tears, cough, rapid breathing and pulse, depression, etc.


Keeping dogs must pay attention to their own protectionPomeranian (2 photos)You must also pay attention to your own safety protection at all times when raising dogs and training dogs, and do not get bitten or bitten by the dog. Some dogs will attack their owners or bite neighbors and pedestrians due to temporary wild attacks. Those well-trained healthy dogs will occasionally hurt their owners’ hands or legs. If you are bitten by a dog or bitten by a dog to the extent of bleeding for whatever reason, in addition to routine treatment of the wound, you should immediately go to the local epidemic prevention station for subcutaneous injection of rabies vaccine within 24 hours to prevent the problem. Don’t take it lightly. Keepers in kennels should be vaccinated against rabies regularly. Children in the dog’s house should not approach the dog or the kennel easily to prevent the dog’s animal manipulation and hurt people [6] 

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